Interesting piece on what makes music sound sad; in terms of minor vs. major keys.
I tend to downplay the effect of lyrics in assessing whether a song sounds happy or sad; but I realize I pay a little less attention to lyrics than some. “Smile” by Pearl Jam is an interesting example. The lyrics are arguably ‘happy’ during the decidedly minor key verse parts (this is somewhat debatable I guess though), and ‘sad’ during the major key refrain. Plus, this is a good excuse to get a little Pearl Jam here on the Boca Breeze.